yellow foot chanterelle identification

J Chiropr Med, 44-53. The winter chanterelle is a common, easy to identify and delicious mushroom that can be picked in large numbers right through November and well into December in most of the UK. amzn_assoc_placement = "adunit0"; On a hunch, born of research into edible mushrooms and foraging, I pushed the fungi over gently with my foot, breaking them off at the ground and revealing their underside, which further confirmed my theory—chanterelles. Typically, even a heat wave in October would not be enough to summon summer chanterelles. According to the results of McRae’s (2018) meta-analysis on fiber intake and diabetes, daily fiber intake significantly decreases risk for type 2 diabetes, the chronic medical condition brought about by increased sugar accumulation on bloodstream due to unhealthy lifestyle[x]. Nordsvamp. With chanterelles, you’ll find their caps to be convex-shaped. Molecular systematics of Craterellus: cladistic analysis of nuclear LSU rDNA sequence data. Craterellus tubaeformis: The Yellow Foot Trumpet Chanterelle Mushroom Craterellus tubaeformi s (C. tubaeformis) is a fairly common forest mushroom that grows from small to medium size. [xi] Yahia, E. M. (2018). By boosting red blood cells that carry oxygen to the brain, these vitamins cause the central nervous system to work faster, thus, significantly alerts the decision-making process, and improves the overall disposition of the person. [vi] Watanabe, F., Schwarz, J., Takenaka, S., Miyamoto, E., Ohishi, N., Nelle, E., . amzn_assoc_linkid = "175fb54f78591e25daf3429f298260c1"; Chanterelle is a plant that can be found in Red Dead Redemption 2. The wild mushroom, Craterellus tubaeformis, is also called the Yellow Foot or Yellow Legs and it’s easily identified. However, these metals may only add up to a certain amount that is within tolerance levels, and with proper preparation, they may further decrease in the cooking process. Winter Chanterelle Pizza . Molecular systematics of Craterellus: cladistic analysis of nuclear LSU rDNA sequence data. They resemble Chanterelles only in the forked blunt veins that run down the stem under the cap. The Journal of Organic Chemistry, 1233-1235. Foraging for Yellowfoot Chanterelles. They're sought after by chefs and foodies due to their delicate flavor, which some describe as "mildly peppery." amzn_assoc_placement = "adunit0"; ; They are bright yellow to light orange in color. It is closely related to Craterellus tubaeformis. They're common in the Cascades and on the coast. infundibuliformis is now pointed to C. tubaeformis.i. Yellow foot or the winter chanterelle, Craterellus tubaeformis. amzn_assoc_linkid = "175fb54f78591e25daf3429f298260c1"; Craterellus ignicolor known by some as Yellow Foot or Flame Colored Chanterelle. Winter chanterelles (AKA yellow foot chanterelles) are much smaller and thinner than Pacific golden chanterelles. ! Due to the relevance of modern researches, any reference regarding Cr. Paperback £5.27 £ 5. For most people they are easy to identify. It's the middle of November, and yet the days are consistently warm and wonderful. You need to pick a lot of these to make a difference, but that is often how they fruit given cool wet weather and they are worth the trouble! The True Chanterelle has a more distinctive ‘irregular’ wavy and lobed shape all round the edge. Chanterelle mushrooms are known for their ability to accumulate heavy metals that are usually known to be toxic to the human body when ingested. Even though chanterelles are among the safest mushrooms to identify, they still have doppelgangers and some can cause trouble. Description. Like their cousins, the golden chanterelles, yellowfeet (formerly Cantharellus tubaeformis, now Craterellus tubaeformis and close relatives) have a pleasant and slightly fruity smell, although, like hedgehogs, these are definitely more mushroomy in … In terms of storage, unwashed C. tubaeformis may be kept in a paper bag inside the refrigerator for less than a week. Caution should be used when trying to identify chanterelle mushrooms, given that there are species out there that will make you sick. 1986. Not only will get you a free field guide but you will get exclusive access to ground breaking studies, and discounts. (1991). Between C. tubaeformis and C. infundibuliformis, the distinction is still unclear. Their false gills appear as wrinkles that are forked and wavy w… doi: 10.1186/s13002-015-0036-0, [xiii] Santiago, F. H., Moreno, J. P., Cázares, B. X., Suárez, J. J. In Mexico, C. tubaeformis is not only consumed as food, but is also treated as medicine[xiii]. They are delicate and have a wonderful subtle flavor that pairs well with proteins including fish, pastas, rice dishes, as well as vegetables. Chanterelle is the common name of several species of fungi in the genera Cantharellus, Craterellus, Gomphus, and Polyozellus.They are among the most popular of wild edible mushrooms.They are orange, yellow or white, meaty and funnel-shaped. [iii] Phosri, C., Polme, S., Taylor, A. F., Koljalg, U., Suwannasai, N., & Tedersoo, L. (2012). Both have semi-hollow stems, well-developed false gills, and the fruity scent and flavor of their bigger brethren. Think of a vase shape. Find couple Yellow Foot Chanterelles on December, 2011. Mushrooms are a tasty way to break free of normal seasonal winter fare, like root vegetables. The statements made on healing-mushrooms.net have NOT been evaluated by the FDA. Chanterelles and Trumpets: Cantharellus and Craterellus [ Basidiomycota > Cantharellales > Cantharellaceae. . The common names for . Mushroom Diversity of Konkan Region of Maharashtra, India. The dust and soil in the caps and the gills are cleaned using a dry and soft brush. The easiest way to identify any mushroom is to look at the cap. Occasional but can be found in great numbers towards the end of the season when lucky enough to find them. Chanterelles (Cantharellus cibarius), or "golden chanterelles," are probably the most well known wild mushrooms. It is also a great addition to flavor and texture in a variety of vegetable dishes. Its hymenium is usually orange or white, whereas the hymenium of C. tubaeformis is grey. 78: 478–485. Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine, 12(1). Note the “gills.” Like all chanterelles, these are not actually gills. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 95-98. by Mushroom A. Saurusrex | 2 Jan 2020. Note: This photo were taken in the southeastern part of Norway. The products recommended on healing-mushrooms.net are not verified by the FDA to treat, cure or prevent any disease. Sun Dried Wild Chanterelle Mushrooms by Dirfis | Hand Picked from Greek Forests | 30gram. Because it is still a premature discovery, its biological activity, insect-related activity, and/or effect on mushroom consumers has not been fully explored[xiv]. Pinpoint your location annonymously through the The thin, sometimes hollow or flattened stem is distinctive with its yellow “foot” when young. when younger). Dietary Fiber Intake and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: An Umbrella Review of Meta-analyses. [viii] Cardwell, G., Bornman, J. F., James, A. P., & Black, L. J. Funga Nordica 2nd edition re-issue. Chanterelles: Sustainable and Considerate Harvesting June 25, 2020. Mushroom Type. amzn_assoc_search_bar = "true"; The easiest way to identify any mushroom is to look at the cap. Other vitamins and minerals found in this mushroom are vitamins B, B12[vi], D, fiber, and copper. Craterellus tubaeformis. amzn_assoc_marketplace = "amazon"; It is to be noted that soaking the mushroom or leaving it wet for a certain period of time may cause sogginess. Habitat and host associations of Craterellus tubaeformis in northwestern Oregon. While many mushrooms are big and we tend to cut them into smaller pieces, some chanterelles are relatively small and can be used whole. Antibacterial Activity of Some Bulgarian Higher Basidiomycetes Mushrooms. Season Start. This smell … Chanterelles are easy to spot, easy to tell apart from poisonous lookalikes and they taste delicious. doi: 10.1615/intjmedmushr.v8.i1.80. Most of the supplement industry is selling you on placebo, but I don't feel that's the case with medicinal mushrooms. amzn_assoc_linkid = "175fb54f78591e25daf3429f298260c1"; Habitat and host associations of Craterellus tubaeformis in northwestern Oregon. The White Chanterelle is much the same as the Yellow Chanterelle except the color is white. This was not the chanterelle’s cold hardy relation the yellow-foot chanterelle, but a classic golden with rich orange autumnal coloring. Keep an eye out for this, as there are a few mushrooms that kinda-sorta look like yellowfeet that have real gills. The false chanterelle is a deeper orange with no yellow. Chanterelles are one of the most exciting edibles to forage. You may also find a certain species to resemble the color of ripe peaches. Vein Golden Chanterelle Mushroom consists of wrinkled veins on the base of the cap which distinguish it from Hygrophoropsis aurantiaca, the False Chanterelle. (Craterellus tubaeformis, Craterellus ignicolor) Craterellus tubaeformis, also known as Winter Chanterelle, Trumpet Chanterelle, Yellow Foot, tubies, tubes. Color varies from light yellow to deep egg-yolk yellow, but sometimes a fine white bloom masks the background color. From economic survival to recreation: contemporary uses of wild food and medicine in rural Sweden, Ukraine and NW Russia. The underside of a winter chanterelle cap shows the characteristic chanterelle veins or wrinkles. Chanterelles 101 (Goldens, Whites, Pigs Ears, Yellow Feet and more...) Still, it seems to us that no website dealing with mushrooms in the Pacific Northwest could ever be complete without discussing Chanterelles in detail; some might debate it, but we think it's fair to say that Chanterelles are the most popular quarry for Northwest mushroomers, especially west of the Cascades. [ii] Borkar, P., Doshi, A., & Navathe, S. (2015). amzn_assoc_asins = "B07BNVWFKZ,B01E9GDRW8,B01E9LKF14,B07BNX6KCZ"; As a member of the Craterellus genus, C. tubaeformis is packed with most essential nutrients and minerals needed by the body. Their stems are tall and narrow relative to their caps, and are mostly hollow. My favorite variety of Chanterelle is the Yellow Foot, Craterellus tubaeformis, and it's closely related ally, Craterellus aurora. amzn_assoc_search_bar = "true"; Craterellus tubaeformis (formerly Cantharellus tubaeformis) is an edible fungus, also known as Yellowfoot, winter mushroom, or Funnel Chanterelle.It is mycorrhizal, forming symbiotic associations with plants, making it very challenging to cultivate.It is smaller than the golden chanterelle (Cantharellus cibarius) and has a dark brown cap with paler gills and a hollow yellow stem. [xvi] Lehrer, S.B. ​Come read this article if you want to find out the Dirty Secret in the Mushroom Industry and how to choose an Authentic Mushroom Supplement. [xv] Persson, H.; Karlsson-Stiber, C. (1993). How to Identify Chanterelle Mushrooms The morel may just be the most popular and well-known wild mushroom among outdoors people, but the golden chanterelle comes in a close second. While this list is nowhere near exhaustive we will be avoiding those edible mushrooms that aren't known for being good, growing in number sufficient for a meal, or easily mistaken for a toxic look-a-like. Color may differs from light yellow to deep egg-yolk yellow, but occasionally a fine white bloom masks the background color. are Winter Chanterelle or Yellow Foot. Flame Chanterelle (Craterellus ignicolor) This one, also called yellow foot or small chanterelle, is almost as small as the other small chanterelle already listed, and it develops a distinct hole in the top, like a very narrow interior of the vase. Additionally healing-mushrooms.net is a participant in the Amazon Services LLC Associates Program, an affiliate advertising program designed to provide a means for sites to earn advertising fees by advertising and linking to amazon.com. doi: 10.1186/s13002-016-0108-9, [xiv] Pang, Z., & Sterner, O. amzn_assoc_ad_type = "smart"; (2012). ; Lopez, M.; Butcher, B.T. He named it Agaricus aurora, but since then the mushroom has gone through a series of Latin monikers and classifications. With their drab brown caps (3-7cm across) and flimsy flesh, winter chanterelles aren’t nearly so glamorous as the true yolky-golden chanterelle (Cantharellus Cibarius). amzn_assoc_tracking_id = "dmgbiz-20"; Presently, the fungus is harvested and distributed in Asia, such as India[ii] and Thailand[iii], as well as Africa. In the same way as we might apply different harvesting strategies to different edible plants, seaweeds or fruits, so different edible fungi require species-specific insight and understanding in order to come up with appropriate harvesting strategies. Craterellus tubaeformis (formerly Cantharellus tubaeformis) is an edible fungus, also known as yellowfoot, winter mushroom, or funnel chanterelle. The latter ones are technically a bit different, but still in the chanterelle family. While these ethnographic studies show that C. tubaeformis is part of a population’s diet, there is no available research that seeks to identify the amount of C. tubaeformis that is safe for ingesting. Fruit and vegetable phytochemicals: chemistry and human health. There are smaller, more delicate "chanterelles" that grow throughout the summer and into the fall. Is a chef doing things with shaved fennel that are out of Prior to taking ANY supplements you should consult a health care professional. Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine, 11(1). Their color will mostly be a pale yellow, blending towards an orange-yellow. The color is also graded, meaning they're darker at the center of the cap rather than one uniform color. Svampförgiftning—klinik och behandling.Läkartidningen. The information found on healing-mushrooms.net is strictly the author expressing an opinion. There may or may not be potential danger when taken in excess and no effect when taken in minuscule amounts; what is only established by existing literature is that C. tubaeformis is an edible mushroom. A Review of Mushrooms as a Potential Source of Dietary Vitamin D. Chicken of the Woods Mushroom (Laetiporus Sulphureus, Sulphur Shelf), The Wood Blewit Mushroom: Clitocybe nuda & Lepista nuda Benefits. Well mature Yellow Chanterelles are refered to as flowers while the younger are called buttons. Craterellus tubaeformis (formerly Cantharellus tubaeformis) is an edible fungus, also known as yellowfoot, winter mushroom, or funnel chanterelle.It is mycorrhizal, forming symbiotic associations with plants, making it very challenging to cultivate.It is smaller than the golden chanterelle (Cantharellus cibarius) and has a dark brown cap with paler gills and a hollow yellow stem. Time Of Year: Late Spring through early Summer.Once you find an area that produces chanterelles, go back 2 or 3 times within that month. Think of a vase shape. you just might find they fruit in the same area 2, 3 or 4 times! In Sweden, C. tubaeformis is part of the 11 wild species of mushrooms that are consumed as food[xii]. Mushroom Complexes: Are the Reported Benefits Real? Identification: The underside of the cap of Smooth Chanterelles are (obviously) smooth, having either no gills on the underside of the cap and stem (stipe) or they have very little reticulation (similar to the Black Trumpet). By then, cibaric acid was subjected to isolation and analysis. This one, also called yellow foot or small chanterelle, is almost as small as the other small chanterelle already listed, and it develops a distinct hole in the top, like a very narrow interior of the vase. C. tubaeformis have significant traces of vitamin B and B12[xi]. The Colour: The False Chanterelle tends to be a deeper Orange-Yellow compared to lighter egg yoke yellow of the True Chanterelle. by Michael Kuo. Cap: 2-7 cm wide cap that changes color with age; from yellow-dark brown when fresh to grayish brown when matureGills: shades of grayStem: 3-9 cm tall x 3-8mm thick; waxy surface with warm orange-yellow color when young, brownish-yellow when matureSmell: no distinct odorTaste: no distinct taste other than a general earthy flavorSpores: roundish smoothSpore color: white or very light yellow[iv]Edibility: edibleHabitat: moss, increased growth especially in well-decayed, coarse, and woody debris[v], Aside from the physical differences, C. tubaeformis is also often confused with other mushrooms in the context of nomenclature. amzn_assoc_region = "US"; amzn_assoc_ad_mode = "manual"; When seasons change and availability of mushroom is scarce, C. tubaeformis can be preserved, dried, or pickled. From here, C. tubaeformis may grow solitarily or in loose clusters, or occasionally, in large numbers too. Dried Yellow Foot Chanterelles capture and preserve the delicate flavor and tender texture of this popular wild mushroom. Cantherellus tubaeformis. amzn_assoc_placement = "adunit0"; Pale yellow/orange and tough, never pure white. Craterellus tubaeformis, also known as Winter Chanterelle, Trumpet Chanterelle, Yellow Foot, tubies, tubes. A wild mushroom, the chanterelle has proven difficult to cultivate. your neighbors and the world! It has a very distinctive smokey, peppery taste whe… Chanterelle is the common name of several species of fungi in the genera Cantharellus, Craterellus, Gomphus, and Polyozellus.They are among the most popular of wild edible mushrooms.They are orange, yellow or white, meaty and funnel-shaped. Ranging in color from yellow to deep orange, golden chanterelles are easy to spot in the summer forest. In a study done on fungal allergy and pathogenicity, results show that five percent of the subjects with respiratory allergies are sensitive to C. tubaeformis’ spores[xvi]. apples? The Colour: The False Chanterelle tends to be a deeper Orange-Yellow compared to lighter egg yoke yellow of the True Chanterelle. However, you can find red chanterelles, yellow foot chanterelles, and black trumpet mushrooms. £8.95 £ 8. 2. Funnel-shaped cap, of diameter up to 10cm, has a wavy irregular margin. Anther key thing about yellowfoot chanterelles is that they are hollow; thus the Latin name tubaeformis. amzn_assoc_tracking_id = "dmgbiz-20"; [iv] Knudsen, H., & Vesterholt, J. Traditional knowledge and use of wild mushrooms by Mixtecs or Ñuu savi, the people of the rain, from Southeastern Mexico. However, you can find red chanterelles, yellow foot chanterelles, and black trumpet mushrooms. (1999). These places are abundant with conifers, including pines, spruces, and firs. C. tubaeformis is a great source of fiber. International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms, 8(1), 63–66. 1. Mainly coniferous woodland but can be found on heaths and occasionally with deciduous trees. Right now in Carmel-By-The-Sea, a small beach town in California’s Monterey Peninsula, chef Soerke Peters of Basil is foraging for stunning yellowfoot chanterelles. Photo by Jerzy Opioła. Later on up that same trail we were able to fill a 5 gallon bucket all from chanterelles growing under huckleberry bushes. With the recency of C. tubaeformis’ re-classification, there are limited studies regarding its comprehensive effect, both positive and negative, whether medicinal or nutritional, on the human body. Medicinal Mushrooms are great. amzn_assoc_title = "Top Selling Mushroom Supplements"; (2018). Categories: Information. Basidiomycete mycelia and spore-allergenextracts: skin test reactivity in adults with symptoms of respiratory allergy. 3. 6739 Yellow-footed Chanterelle, photo by darylann. amzn_assoc_title = "Top Selling Mushroom Supplements"; The White Chanterelle is more common to the Pacific Northwest and Central California. Typically, even a heat wave in October would not be enough to summon summer chanterelles. FREE Delivery on your first order shipped by Amazon. The yellow of poplar leaves speckled the understory, suggesting impending fall. And there were bright orange mushrooms everywhere, in and near the trail. Chanterelle Risotto; How to Identify. They range from pin head size to a 2-4 inches on average but can get bigger, flower. Biodiversity and Conservation, 2287–2298. Flesh . amzn_assoc_region = "US"; Diversity and community composition of ectomycorrhizal fungi in a dry deciduous dipterocarp forest in Thailand. This was not the chanterelle’s cold hardy relation the yellow-foot chanterelle, but a classic golden with rich orange autumnal coloring. Winter Chanterelle, Yellow Foot, Trumpet Chanterelle. The Cap: The False Chanterelle has a fine ‘downy’ surface texture (esp. Craterellus tubaeformis (C. tubaeformis) is a fairly common forest mushroom that grows from small to medium size. Moreover, there are rare cases observed regarding taking C. tubaeformis with alcohol that resulted to negative reactions from the body[xv]. Come find out the supplement industry's dirty secret. Licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International. amzn_assoc_region = "US"; [v] Trappe, M. (2004). They can be as large as 5 inches in diameter, but 2 inches is closer to average. [and others]. Find couple Yellow Foot Chanterelles on December, 2011. It is yellow, but sometimes its sides, where its ridges are, become pink or pinkish with maturity. 90:2857–2864. The mushrooms in the genera Cantharellus and Craterellus have fairly well defined caps and stems, or are vase-shaped to trumpet-shaped. Mushroom Diversity of Konkan Region of Maharashtra, India. Guided for foraging and mushroom and fungus identification. The color and size of the Chanterelle varies from region to region. There are many species of chanterelle to eat, but the most common ones are white chanterelles. So, when in doubt, consult a good mushroom foraging guide to be absolutely sure of what you are picking. amzn_assoc_marketplace = "amazon"; Saying Our Midwestern yellowfoot chanterelles are small is an understatement, but you can get consistent flushes around downed logs in a damp, forest-y mushroom patch, especially in places you’d look for black trumpets, since they often grow very close to each other where I live. Aug. On the lower surface, underneath the smooth cap, most species have rounded, forked folds that run almost all the way down the stipe, which tapers down. November's bounty: Yellow Feet, Chanterelles, a Cauliflower and a Couple of Surprises . infundibuliformis all refer to a specific mushroom species that is Craterellus tubaeformis. Cibaric acid is a relatively new fatty acid compound that is discovered in the 1990’s. Is your market carrying green dragon . Yellowfeet are generally small mushrooms. Foraging for Yellowfoot Chanterelles. Yellowfeet, as they're commonly called here, are small, slender brown mushrooms up to 3" across, with a slender, usually hollow stem, colored yellow at the base. Yellowfoot Chanterelles. A Review of Mushrooms as a Potential Source of Dietary Vitamin D. Nutrients, 1498. A Guide to Getting Vegan Vitamin D from Medicinal Mushrooms, Best Digital and Analog Hygrometers for Growing Mushrooms. amzn_assoc_ad_mode = "manual"; Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. The thin, sometimes hollow or flattened stem is distinctive with its yellow “foot” when young. At 1:30 PM today the temperature's in the mid-60s, and the wind speed (Here at Port Orford, normally the windiest point on the Oregon coast!) amzn_assoc_ad_type = "smart"; The latter ones are technically a bit different, but still in the chanterelle family. When cooked, C. tubaeformis emits no distinct taste except for a generally pleasant and earthy flavor. Even then, individual differences should be taken into account, and what proves to be effective to the general population may not prove the same for a certain individual. I love them in their abundance, almost always frequenting the same mossy stream sides as I am. You should be able to use them as a drinking straw, if you were so … Found during the late summer through early fall, the chanterelle is characterized by its distinctive coloring and a trumpet-shaped cap. Diversity and community composition of ectomycorrhizal fungi in a dry deciduous dipterocarp forest in Thailand. Yellow/orange tapering slightly towards the base, often curved. Because of its taste, it is known to be an adaptable and versatile ingredient that can complement a lot of dishes like pasta stuffing, mushroom soup, and pizza. 27. Mostly available for harvest in mid-winter through mid-spring or September to January, there are many ways to prepare C. tubaeformis as food. amzn_assoc_asins = "B07BNVWFKZ,B01E9GDRW8,B01E9LKF14,B07BNX6KCZ"; [i] Dahlman, M., Danell, E., & Spatafora, J. W. (2000). It is smaller than the golden chanterelle(Cantharellus cibarius) and has a dark brown cap with paler gills and a hollow yellow stem. Come read this article if you want to find out the Dirty Secret in the Mushroom Industry and how to choose an Authentic Mushroom Supplement. C. lutescens is also usually found in wetlands. [vii] Tsvetkova, I., Naydenski, H., Petrova, A., Kostadinova, E., Gyosheva, M., Georgieva, P., … Popov, S. (2006). This mushroom is a wonderful and often overlooked edible, every bit as good as its better-known cousin, the Chanterelle. Pale orange in color, the chanterelle mushroom thrives in the woodland areas of northern Michigan. They are generally found budding in decaying, coarse, woody debris, lowland, wet lands, and moss-covered logs in the mountainous regions of North America and Europe[i]. Chanterelles (Cantharellus cibarius), or \"golden chanterelles,\" are probably the most well known wild mushrooms. It is yellow, but sometimes its sides, where its ridges are, become pink or pinkish with maturity. Choosing the Best Food Dehydrator for Mushrooms: The Top 5 Reviewed, Megacollybia Rodmanii: The Platterful Mushroom Identification and Info. Their stems are tall and narrow relative to their caps, and are mostly hollow. 2. When you find one, you will usually find many; they often grow in large numbers as in a group. With their drab brown caps (3-7cm across) and flimsy flesh, winter chanterelles aren’t nearly so glamorous as the true yolky-golden chanterelle (Cantharellus Cibarius). The gills are well spaced, blunt, shallow, fairly thick with connecting veins and are the same color as the cap. Chanterelles (Cantharellus cibarius) Photo by Björn S. Once exclusively eaten by French nobility before becoming common in most kitchens in Europe, chanterelles, also known as the “Golden Chanterelles,” are the most well known wild mushroom and one of the easiest to identify - if not by their funnel-shaped cap then by their fruity perfumed scent. The Cap: The False Chanterelle has a fine ‘downy’ surface texture (esp. It can be yellowed when bruised.

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